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Magonjwa ya Kurithi Yapatikanayo Katika Familia

Je, unajua historia ya magonjwa ya familia yako? Pengine unajua tu kuhusu mambo makubwa. Usishangae kwa mfano, kugundua kuwa nyanyako mkuu na dada zake watatu wote walikufa kutokana na saratani ya matiti, ingawa ugonjwa huu haukujitokeza kwa mama yako. Ama pengine unajua kuwa babako na ndugu zake wana ugonjwa wa Shinikizo la Damu mwilini na hujui iwapo ni la juu au la chini ama namna ugonjwa huu ulivyowaathiri.

Kuna aina fulani ya magonjwa ambayo hupatikana katika familia. Mengine yanayotokana na hali ya kurithi na mengine kwa sababu familia hushiriki mazingira yale yale (mahali wanapoishi, aina ya chakula n.k.) Hali zinazojitokeza bayana sanasana ni zifuatazo.
 
Kuna jeni (Genes) mbili ‘Breast Cancer Gene 1’ na ‘Breast Cancer Gene 2’ ambayo inaweza kupitishwa katika familia kutoka kwa kizazi kimoja hadi kingine. Iwapo mojawapo wa familia yenu, hasa mama, dada au binti amewahi kuugua saratani ya matiti, muhimu hata nawe ufanyiwe ukaguzi na uchunguzi wa kila mara wa matiti yako.
 
Huweza kusababishwa  jeni (genes) kutoka kwa matiti zilizoathiriwa na saratani ya matiti. Iwapo, mamako, dadako au bintiyo amewahi kushikwa na saratani ya uzazi, uko kwenye hatari ya kuupata ya asilimia 5 (5%) katika maisha yako. Ni muhimu uangaliwe na ukaguliwe chembechembe za seli za sehemu za uzazi (papsmears) ili ugunduliwe mapema iwapo una huu ugonjwa.
 
Hali hii inaweza kudhibitiwa kwa matibabu, lishe bora na kufanya mazoezi. Hata hivyo, watu wengi huwa hawatambui kuwa wana huu ugonjwa hadi wakati ambapo wamechelewa mno. Iwapo una wazazi ambao wana hali hii, ni muhimu ukaguliwe kila mara ili upate matibabu mapema.
 
Hii ndiyo kansa hatari sana ya ngozi. Kiwaa cheusi (mole) hubadilika na kuwa uvimbe. Familia zingine zina aina ya FAMM yaani Familial Atypical Multiple Mole Melanoma. Iwapo mtu yeyote katika familia yenu amewahi kuwa na aina hii ya saratani ni muhimu uangaliwe kila baada ya miezi mine au sita. Iwapo una kiwaa ambacho kinabadilika na kuwa na uchungu na kuvimba enda hospitalini kichunguzwe mara moja.
 
Kolestroli ya juu (High Cholesterol)
Unaweza kudhibiti hali hii kupitia kwa lishe bora iwapo mchunguzi hali hii na unaye mzazi au rafiki ambaye amewahi kupata ugonjwa wa moyo kabla afikie miaka 55 kuna uwezekano kuwa unaweza kupata ugonjwa huu. Hakikisha kuwa unakaguliwa kila mara.
 
Aina ya 1 na 2 zinaweza kurithishwa katika familia. Hivyo basi iwapo mojawapo ya watu wa familia yako amewahi kuugua aina yoyote ile ni muhimu kiwango cha sukari mwilini mwako kikaguliwe kila mara na uhakikishe kuwa, kiwango chako cha sukari mwilini kinachunguzwa. Jambo la kuhuzunisha ni kwamba aina ya 1 haiwezi kuzuilika. Lakini ya pili inaweza iwapo mtu atafanya mazoezi na kula lishe bora.
 
Glaucoma – Ugonjwa wa Macho
Iwapo katika familia yako kuna historia ya Glaucoma, kuna uwezekano mkubwa wako kuupata ugonjwa huu kwa sababu una uhusiano wa uzazi. Hali hii haitibiki kabisa lakini inaweza kuzuiliwa.
 
Hii hali hufuata historia ya familia na inaweza kurithishwa. Hata hivyo si lazima mtu arithi, unaweza kujitokeza tu hata bila mtu yeyote katika familia kuwahi kuwa nao.
 
Kuna uwezekano wa mtu kushikwa na Alzheimers iwapo wazazi wake au madugu wamewahi kuwa nao.
 
Iwapo mtu ana shida ya mzio kuna uwezekano wa 50% kuwa mtoto wake atakuwa na shida hii. Iwapo wazazi wote wawili wanamzio kuna uwezekano wa 75% kuwa mtoto wao atakuwa nayo. Ugonjwa wa pumu (Asthma) mara nyingi unasababishwa na mzio na watoto wengi walio na asthma pia wana mzio.
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Ni kweli kwamba magonjwa mengi huambatana sambamba na historia ya familia yako. Jinsi ulivo patiana mifano hapa kwa maandishi, magonjwa kama saratani ya matiti, saratani ya mapafu ama saratani ya damu hupitishwa kwa ukoo mmmoja hadi mwingine. Jinsi nilivyo shuhudia mwenyewe, nyanya ambaye ni mama mzazi wa mama yangu alipimwa na kupatikana na ugonjwa wa saratani ya damu. Baada ya kufariki miaka saba iliyopita, dada yangu pia alishikwa na ugonjwa uo huo.
Asante kwa kutueleza kinaga ubaga jinsi ya kujua na kukabiliana na haya magonjwa.
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